The answer depends on which part of Data Lab you wish to use: The Jupyter notebook server, for instance, currently only provides a Python kernel and the client APIs for Data Lab are only available in Python as well. However, Data Lab services (e.g. the queryManager) are implemented as RESTful web services and at a very low level can be accessed from any language that can talk to an HTTP service (note the client APIs also do error handling and sometimes result processing, so this level of interface can be cumbersome to use or will have some limitations). Data services such as TAP (Table Access Prototcol) access to catalogs or the SIA (Simple Image Access) service can be accessed using VO-protocol aware tools such as TOPCAT or Aladin, and VO-aware libraries exist in multiple languages as well.
Please contact us if you have questions about using Data Lab services from a particular language and we will try to offer advice.